Wall Calendar "Art Forms of Microscopy"
Wall Calendar "Art Forms of Microscopy"
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- Paper: The calendar is printed on 250 g/m² semi-matte silk paper.
- Format: Portrait A3 (29.7 x 42 cm).
- Attachment: Hook for easy hanging.
- Color of the Wire-O-Binder: It can be metallic, black, or white – depending on regional availability.
- Packaging: Flat, protective packaging box in brown or white.
All illustrations are based on the original drawings of the botany pioneer Nathanael Pringsheim (1823-1894). Through his algae research, Pringsheim recognized sexuality as a fundamental principle not only in "higher" but also in "lower" life, revolutionizing the then-understanding of biology. Besides his work on lower plants such as algae, mosses, and ferns, Pringsheim also intensely studied higher plants, especially flowering plants. He was a master of microscopy and scientific drawing. The calendar features a selection of his most impressive drawings, revised by AlgenARTIST.
Cover Page: Hypnum serpens
Cross-section of the stem of the moss Hypnum serpens. Mosses were the first land plants. Pringsheim studied the sexual reproduction of these plants.
January: Acrochaete repens
The green alga Acrochaete repens was discovered by Nathanael Pringsheim on Helgoland. Pringsheim often visited the island because it provided ideal conditions for his algae research. Later, Pringsheim successfully initiated the founding of the first German marine biological research station on Helgoland.
February: Spermathamnion roseolum
Nathanael Pringsheim studied not only yellow-green, green, and brown algae but also red algae. Pictured is the red alga Spermathamnion roseolum, which was also discovered by Nathanael Pringsheim on Helgoland.
March: Pandorina morum
In his search for archetypes of sexuality, Pringsheim discovered a particularly simply organized sexuality in the green alga Pandorina morum. In the asexual reproduction shown, each cell divides into sixteen daughter cells, which together form a new colony.
April: Vaucheria sessilis
With the yellow-green alga Vaucheria sessilis, Nathanael Pringsheim witnessed fertilization in a living organism for the first time. This was a scientific sensation at his time. The female sexual organ shown on the right contains an egg cell, which is later fertilized by sperm cells from the male sexual organ (on the left).
May: Coleochaeta scutata
In the green algae genus Coleochaeta, Nathanael Pringsheim discovered an alternation between sexual and asexual generations. The evolutionary progress of land plants can be understood as an adaptation to the generational change first described in green algae. The image clearly shows the spiky "cell hairs" typical for the Coleochaeta genus, which deter herbivores.
June: Coleochaeta soluta
Explanation: see “May”. The illustration shows a different Coleochaeta species.
July: Hydrodictyon spec.
Pictured is the “polyhedron stage” of a green alga from the Hydrodictyon (water net) genus. Inside the polyhedron, spores are visible, from which asexually new nets emerge. Nathanael Pringsheim discovered that the water net also reproduces sexually. Pringsheim's findings about the sexuality of green algae are significant since multicellular green algae are the ancestors of all today's land plants.
August: Chara fragilis
The stonewort Chara fragilis is depicted. Stoneworts are very primitive organisms and form a sister group to land plants. Nathanael Pringsheim was interested in these algae because they resemble flowering plants in their appearance.
September: Hypnum serpens
Explanation: see “Cover Page”. The original drawing was edited with a different filter.
October: Salvinia natans
Nathanael Pringsheim discovered the sexual reproduction of the floating fern Salvinia natans. Shown is a cross-section through the embryo (ovoid red area). Pringsheim was the first to describe the entire cycle of sexual and asexual reproduction of the floating fern.
November: Utricularia vulgaris
Cross-section through two tubes of the bladderwort, Utricularia vulgaris. This aquatic plant catches small water animals with pitfall traps that it forms on its leaves. Pringsheim studied the development of these tubes. The funnels, which provide access to the interior, are visible in the image. Charles Darwin also showed great interest in these fascinating carnivorous plants.
December: Mercurialis annua
A look into the female floral organs of the annual mercury, Mercurialis annua. Nathanael Pringsheim examined the development of the flower. It provides protection for the embryo and allows flowering plants to conquer new habitats.